Refining

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Refining is an essential part of meeting the growing demand for energy.

An oil or petroleum refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is processed and refined into more useful products such as petroleum naphtha, gasoline, diesel fuel, jet fuel, asphalt base, heating oil, kerosene and liquefied petroleum gas. Oil refineries are typically large, sprawling industrial complexes with extensive piping running throughout, carrying streams of fluids between large chemical processing units.

Major processes which use Dresser-Rand equipment —

  • Naphtha Hydrotreater Unit – uses hydrogen to desulfurize naphtha from atmospheric distillation. Must hydrotreat the naphtha before sending to a catalytic reformer unit.
  • Catalytic Reformer Unit – is used to convert the naphtha-boiling range molecules into higher octane reformate (reformer product). The reformate has higher content of aromatics and cyclic hydrocarbons. An important byproduct of a reformer is hydrogen released during the catalyst reaction. The hydrogen is used either in the hydrotreaters or the hydrocracker.
  • Distillate Hydrotreater desulfurizes distillates (such as diesel) after atmospheric distillation.
  • Fluid Catalytic Cracker (FCC) unit upgrades heavier fractions into lighter, more valuable products.
  • Hydrocracker unit uses hydrogen to upgrade heavier fractions into lighter, more valuable products.
  • Coking Units (delayed coker, fluid coker, and flexicoker) process very heavy residual oils into gasoline and diesel fuel, leaving petroleum coke as a residual product.
  • Alkylation Unit uses sulfuric acid or hydrofluoric acid to produce high-octane components for gasoline blending.
  • Steam Reforming Unit – produces hydrogen for the hydrotreaters or hydrocracker.
  • Liquefied Gas Storage Vessels – store propane and similar gaseous fuels at pressure sufficient to maintain them in liquid form. These are usually spherical vessels or “bullets” (i.e., horizontal vessels with rounded ends).
  • Amine Gas Treater – Claus Unit, and tail gas treatment convert hydrogen sulfide from hydrodesulfurization into elemental sulfur.
  • Utility units – such as cooling towers circulate cooling water, boilerplants generates steam, and instrument air systems include pneumatically operated control valves and an electrical substation.